Thursday, October 3, 2019
Importance of individual differences in understanding behaviour
Importance of individual differences in understanding behaviour If you go into any job no matter where you are in the world you will come across a multitude of different personalities and behaviours. An individuals personality doesnt just affect the individual, but everyone around them. Organizations consist of people who work together. Differences between individuals based on personality traits, may be an incentive for the development of creativity and a source of conflicts and other problems existing in the organization. Managers need to be able to measure personalities in order to make useful hiring decisions and they can do this by giving personality test and evaluating the results. This essay will cover information about the individual differences and behaviour at work. Also will give examples of method of measure of personalities and theories. Main Body The word personality derives from the Latin persona, meaning mask ( J.Maltby, L.Day and A.Macaskill, 2007). Psychological definition of personality, define personality in terms of characteristics, or the qualities typical of that individual (J.Maltby, L.Day and A.Macaskill, 2007). Psychologists are interested in what people are like, why they behave as they do and how they became that way.Ã Ã ¸ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã »ÃâÃâÃâÃâ Ã Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ â Ã Ã Ã Ã ° Ã Ã »Ã Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã Ã ¸Ã Ã ½Ã Ã ¸ÃâÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã µ There two main attributes of the individual differences: ability and personality (C.Cooper, 2002). Ability is one of the traits that distinguish one person from another. There are found in the speed, depth and strength of mastery of methods and techniques of some activities and are internal mental regulators (C.Cooper, 2002). Personality stable system of philosophical, psychological and behavioural symptoms, personal feelings, thinks, behaves, that characterize the person (C.Cooper, 2002). According to information above, people differ from each other is obvious. Each person is different from any other their individual psychological peculiarity. The identity of each person is endowed with a combination of traits and characteristics that form the personality a combination of psychological characteristics of people that make up its identity, its difference from other people. Individuality manifested in the character traits, temperament, habits, the prevailing interest, as cognitive processes, abilities, individual style of activity. Studying individual differences is especially important ability for leaders and managers, enabling them to understand and relate well to others as well as understand themselves. It helps effectively promote functions and well-being among employees, because how employees will participate at work will depend on the production, reputation, quality of company or organization where person is working. There are so many different tests which can help to predict or describe personality. For example, there are two popular methods ( J.Maltby, L.Day and A.Macaskill, 2007), which managers can use to help them to determine which type of individual they want to bring to the organization or how to effectively manage the people. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and The Big Five Personality Model, they used to measure personalities. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator is the most widely used in the world. MBTI is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. Individuals are given a 100 question personality test that asks them how they would react in certain situations. Based on the results from the test they are rated as an introvert or an extrovert, intuitive or sensing, feeling or thinking, and perceiving or judging person. Management would rate a quiet or shy person as an introvert and a person that is outgoing, assertive and sociable as an extrovert personality. And intuitive person often looks at the big picture and a sensing person has attention to detail and often likes routine and order. A feeling type of person relies on emotion and values and a thinking person uses simple reason to handle situations. A perceiving individual would be able to handle flexibility and be spontaneous, and a judging individual likes control and ofte n prefers things to be structured. The Big Five method is a research method in which it has five basic dimensions that measure human personality. Personality is an important determinant of how a person thinks, feels, and behaves; it is helpful to distinguish between different types of personality. This method uses five factors which are extraversion a person that is positive emotional and feel good and world around one, neuroticism a person that is negative emotional and view the world around negatively, agreeableness which is a person that is tendency to get along well with others, conscientiousness is a person who is responsible and organized, careful persevering, a person that has openness to experience is creative, original, has broad interest and sensitive. Depending on what the individual scores it will determine which type of personality that they have (S. Wood, M. West, 2010). If the psychological test was carefully chosen it can help organisation or practically manager to do their work easily. General personality measures may well produce some important information about candidates; however, without clear ideas about what to look for, based on a detailed job analysis and other sources (The Psychology of Personel Selection). Each person is unique and has different types of personality that may be suited to different kinds of organizational situations. Characterize human it is not enough to know his temperament and style of the nervous system. Even with a very good knowledge of someones cognitive ability and personality it would impossible, because most of factors depend on situations (The Psychology of Personel Selection). For this reason, it is not enough to spend a few tests to know as individual difference. Good manager should understand and learn how to deal with people and find right way to manage them (Ã Ã ºÃ Ã ½Ã Ã ¸Ã Ã ¶Ã Ã ºÃ Ã ° Ã Ã ¿Ã Ã ¾ OB) . Dispositional factors play a considerable role in our everyday life and there seems no reason to expect that they will not have some effects on work performance Teamwork has become an important part of the working culture and many businesses now look at teamwork skills when evaluating a person for employment. Therefore, it is important that students learn to function in a team environment so that they will have teamwork skill when they enter the workforce. As I dont have any work experience I want to discuss the individual differences according to my team working experience. Starting from, that I actually dont like working in group, because you depend on your group mates, you cannot work at yourself, all time you have to common concept. On other side, there are some positive sides of working together, you can find new friends and some time just make conversation with new people. In my experience I have a lot of team projects, some of them I was enjoyed, some of them were absolutely terrible, because group working is not easy as it looks in reality, you working not with friends or people with whom you prefer to work, but with people who was selected by someone, in my example it was undergraduate office. In group team all people have different inelegance, different character, some of them hardworking, some lazy. According to my group work experience, it easy to say that in this world everything is not as easy as it look like, because sometime you have to do work which you dont like but unfortunately you have to do it. First of all, in my group work were four people including me, all of us were different nationality. In our group were conflicts, difference of opinions, discrepancies, we make decisions, sometimes not quite correct, but we did them together, so its fault belong not to one person, its belong to whole group, because decisions in group make together, because the group is one and decisions should taken collectively. It was difficult to arrange time of our meeting because everyone has different time table But when we were learn about each as some information, it was easier to work In our project most of us participate, but we had one girl, she actually didnt attend most of our meetings, we e-mail to her, called, but she didnt replay on. So we had discussion in our group and decided that we going to gave her that 10% of final work. In fact it was really useful decision, because at the final presentation she was so active, tried to participate in all decision. But our group decided that her it going to be useful lesson for future. As well as, in our group was one person, who was responsible for finance, he was really intsiastics he all time In the conclusion, Importance Of Individual Differences In Understanding Behaviour Importance Of Individual Differences In Understanding Behaviour With globalisation becoming increasingly important, the corporate world is attracting a more diverse workforce and hence an increase in individual differences. An organisation is made up of people and individual differences are a key aspect in any organisation as each and every person brings along their own personal and unique differences. Much of psychology involves finding rules that describe how people behave in general. (Cooper, 2002) Understanding and triggering the best out of the individual differences is crucial for organisations to keep a competitive edge in todays fierce business environment. However managing individual differences is a complex issue as it relates to a number of human factors such as differences in attitudes, values, perceptions of the situation and self. There are diverse roles and research to support the findings of individual differences. However, for the purpose of this assignment I shall focus on how people respond differently to particular motivation interventions. Secondly this essay will also aim at examining individual differences in regards to how motivation affects performance. Studies have shown that motivation is a key influencer in job performance for individuals within their organisation. According to Stevens (2005) motivation is central to most human activities because it governs the choice of behaviour and attitudes. Motivation at work is complex because it relates to a number of interrelated human factors and organisational factors such as individual difference in work competence and organisational procedures, reward systems and communication framework. The higher motivation one has for the job, the more probable they will be to put more effort and work more efficiently. There are various ways that organisations adopt when ensuring that their employees are constantly motivated in their job. A decrease in motivation not only affects the employee and their productivity but the organisation as a whole, as the products will not be produced to the highest quality possible. The various ways that certain methods can be implemented in organisations to increa se the motivation are; increase in wages, bonuses, increase in holidays, days out, etc. However with reference to Taylors theory of motivation, Taylor claimed that money was what the worker wanted most (Locke, 1982). This cannot be proven to be a completely correct, with the research and evidence from individual differences, this contradicts what Taylor claims. Each individual has their own preferences and therefore not will be motivated in different ways Motivation enables one to have a different outlook on their performance of any sort, they will feel a different emotion when completing a task. A number of theories have been proposed to explain the impact of motivation on attitudes towards work and job performance. Reinforcement theory demonstrates that any behaviour that is rewarded would be repeated. This is known as positive reinforcement. An example of this in the workplace could be any monetary or non monetary reward, praise, approval, promotion or access to decision making process. However, it is necessary to consider the balance of the value of rewards to avoid potentially risky behaviour. For example, an individual will be motivated to achieve the greatest reward thus deliberate omission of complying with risk management practices. According to Skinner (1938) managers giving praise to others for working to minimise risk act as a strong motivator to comply with risk management practice and encourage involvement and responsibility. Moreover Social Learning theory contends that an individual are motivated not only by reward and punishment but by observing others receiv ing rewards and punishment. Individuals are motivated to imitate the behaviour of others if they observe they are being rewarded for their behaviour. Hence, managers can lead by example to gear the individual differences into the desired behaviour. However, given that each and every individual is unique, the managers must ensure not to promote discrimination while leading through example. Goal theory shows that people are money through reward systems and involvement in goal setting. Locke (1968) argues that employees are motivated to achieve specifically stated goals which are perceived as personally achievable. Hence understanding the individual differences is vital to help the organisation set Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timely (SMART) goals to create a win-win situation. There are diverse motivation methods in which todays organisations use. There is a growing concern that more and more employees tend to increase the number of turnover within a company thus In order to keep the turnover low, managers need to find new innovative ways to keep individuals within the organisation motivated. The reality is that we can only hypothesise that people are motivated by some particular thing by looking at their behaviour and seeing if there is anything different when the particular thing is involved. (Weightman, 1999). This theory helps to reinforce the fact that understanding motivation of individuals is key in a work environment, this can help determine and predict an individuals performance within the job role. 2. In the war for talent, managers have to keep an even closer eye on staff morale and motivation. (Personnel Today, January 2001) Individual differences are seen all around; in the way each of us reacts to certain situations is a perfect example of differences. There are many diverse ways in which personality can be measured at work. Conversely to measure ones personality can be hard to define. The Big Five Model is a well known technique which explains how different personality traits link together. The Big Five Model has five diverse stages which help to identify the personalities of people, these are; Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness/ Intellect. Extraversion- this goes more into depth about how comfortable one feels around others, and also takes into consideration how sociable and outgoing a person is versus a quiet and reserved person. The more a person is sociable and outgoing, and a person who seeks out status, the more extrovert we say a person is. Agreeableness- This measures the extent to which a person is warm and trusting and open to others, versus someone who is less open and unfriendly. This can also show how a quickly a person can adapt being put in diverse situations and how friendly and welcoming they are to meeting new people. Conscientiousness- This shows the extent to how a person is organised and dependable, versus a person who is unorganised and impulsive. This will show how a person thinks and their feeling towards how they carry out certain tasks. Emotional Stability- This shows the extent of how a person is calm and stable versus a person who is more neurotic and nervous. When placed in certain situations we all experience various feelings and this can help show ones first instinct and how they adapt when placed in certain situations. Openness/ Intellect- This shows the extent to which a person is imaginative and innovative with regards to their ideas and openness to new and diverse experiences versus a narrow-minded and unimaginative individual. To fully understand the various personalities of individuals we need to know and understand all of the five different factors within the big five model. Only then will we be able to understand which category one fits into and thus can determine the way in which they are likely to react when placed in certain situations. Creating a great place to work meant developing an environment where self-motivation could take root and flourish. (Personnel Today, January 2001) When it comes to motivation within peoples careers or jobs, then employees do not want to feel that they need many incentives of motivation in order to be productive, self-motivation from within can also generate high efficiency from an individual and higher overall productivity. The pleasure of being to complete something and wanting to do well and succeed is a perfect example of self-motivation. The want or need to complete something successfully from start to finish and obtain a feeling of satisfaction, is a perfect exam ple of self-motivation at its best. LOOK IN BOOK AND ADD THE DIAGRAM AND TALK ABOUT THE MOTIVATORS FROM BOOK, AND LINK IN WITH INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. Reflective Report-From a personality report created from questionnaires which I filled out with regards to my personality. There were several questions which responded to thirteen different categories of characteristics these are; Sociability, Leadership, Optimism, Cooperation, Compassion, Sensitivity, Stability, Calmness, Order, Industry, Intellect, Culture, and Achievement. Each of these characteristics helps determine an individuals personal traits and behaviour. Both I and a peer completed the questionnaire which would help to outline individual differences in action, and show whether the way I perceive myself would be the same as the way in which my peer perceived my characteristics to be. The results in some cases show that the way in which I have seen myself, can in many cases be completely different or sometimes similar to the way in which others perceive myself. Relevant research helps to support the individual differences theory and helps one to understand how they are perceived by others and the difference in how a person might perceive them to be. Whether introvert or extrovert, all of these traits and personalities are what makes us different, and the way in which we see ourselves on a day-to-day basis can be seen completely different by someone who sees us on a day-to-day basis. Another example of how personality theories have supported certain situations that I have been placed under is doing group assignments at University. I was placed within a group of individuals that I had never previously met. After a few weeks of starting to understand one another, we all felt that we had similar qualities and personalities. Conversely weeks gone by, I started to notic e that people that I originally thought had the same personality in some certain aspects to myself, turned out to be completely different. For example, everyone in the first instance was very agreeable, which in most cases is always true, because we were all aware that this was group work and we had to work together in order for this to be completed. However after meeting often with the group, I noticed people were a lot more extroverts with their feelings, and were not afraid to let their feelings be shown, even if this was negative. In addition to this after several meetings after people who I perceived to be like-minded would be completely opposite to what I thought earlier for example; they would turn up to meetings late or not at all, whereas I am a punctual person and thought they were too from initial meetings, they were very laid-back in approach to their work, and took their time whereas in the beginning showed enthusiasm in wanting to get the work complete. In addition to this, from my personality report, it has been proven that the way in which I perceive myself to be a much organised, conscientious type of person, my traits have been perceived by others to be the same, and that others agree to an extent that I am a very conscientious person. Within the group, there were many who at first gave the impression of being very conscientious however as time went on, I found that they were quite the opposite and more impulsive. Working in a group with such diverse and in most cases opposite personalities to my own was at first daunting and quite a difficult task to ensure each person can remain motivated and get the work completed, however being able to adapt to situations proved to be a strong trait of mine, enabling me to get my message across to all people, in a positive way. Another previous experience of mine showed that I perceive myself to be a good leader in one way or another in being able to apply my thoughts across to my peers and when dealing w ith group work, I am an organised person which helps in being a good leader. From the feedback of the personality report, a friend perceived me in the same way, and thought likewise, as well as this, being in a group with students whom I had never previously met, after receiving a high result in the work, feedback came unknowingly from peers claiming they were glad I was the leader and I made an excellent leaderall credit goes to you. Which helps to show evidence that in some cases we can see ourselves and know most of what our personality is like and what others may also perceive however in many cases many people can get the wrong message about one another. The reflective report helps to support my theory of personality traits within a working environment. My experiences within working at university in group assignments and the peer profile helps to show that personality is key when understanding individuals. Personality helps to determine the outcome of an individual and what is expected of them. Recommendation- There are diverse ways in which work processes can be improved in the future, an example of this is; for managers to schedule regular one-to-one basis meetings, where employees will be able to express their concerns if they have any. On one hand, some employees prefer interaction and want to feel like they have a voice within the company. If a manager is able to effectively understand the employees needs and provide new innovative ways of implementing new systems so that can help employees to feel more motivated, they will thus achieve a better response of motivation. There are individuals who differ, which shows a clear demonstration of individual differences. Thus, some individuals will prefer to have clear guidance and a supervisor or manger to conduct regular meetings, however some may not prefer this technique. Therefore, it is the duty of the manager to get the balance right and ensure that they are able to respond to employees wants and needs. As mentioned abov e, there are various techniques of motivation interventions which can all contribute to the overall performance of an individual. By implementing these motivation factors and putting them into practice in a working environment such as; doing a group project at work, using different techniques which can be creative and not tedious can increase motivation, productivity and the overall efficiency. The downfall of having so many motivation interventions is that due to individual differences within a group, it may be difficult to know which method is the best to pursue. This can have an adverse and opposite effect leaving some members feeling rather de-motivated and generally un-interested, which creates a further problem of trying to re-motivate and create responsiveness in the group. Give advantages and disadvantages to the recommendation when being introduced in an organisation. 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