Monday, November 18, 2019
Zipcar Entering the Foreign Market of Germany - Case Study Example The case study "Zipcar Entering the Foreign Market of Germany" talks about the Zipcar company, car rental service. The paper also analyzes why Zipcar decided to choose Germany as their new market. The rental company was established in 2000 and is currently composed of the merged operations of Zipcar and Flexcar, even as its ownership falls into the hands of Avis. 2006-th saw the company moreover branching out from its key American base and into England, in London, as well as Canada, in Toronto. As for 2012, the company had a presence in about 300 university campuses as well as 20 key urban centers scattered in its western markets. In 2014, too, the company lists Spain as a key market. Germany, given its sizable computer and driving population and its centrality to the European economy, is a good fit as an expansion market for Zipcar. If Great Britain and Spain are viable markets because of their economic readiness for Zipcar services, then one can make an argument too for Germany as a viable market, given that it is not only the largest economy in all of Europe but also that it has the largest population in the continent, after Russia. This mix of large population and a massive economic base makes Germany an exciting market for Zipcar from an economic and demographic point of view. Digging deeper into GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s demographics and economic profile, out of its about 80 million citizens, close to 63 percent is between the ages of 25 and 64 years, the most economically active years from a demographic point of view.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Advantages and Disadvantages of Inventory Management Systems INVENTORY The term inventory derives from the French word inventaire and the Latin word inventariom which simply means a list of things which are found. The term inventory includes materials which are in raw form, or are in process, in the finished packaging, spares and the others which are stocked in order to meet all the unexpected demands or distribution in the future. This term usually refers to the stock at hand at a particular period of time of all those materials which are in raw form, those goods which are in progress of manufacture, all the finished products, merchandise purchased products for resale of those products, tangible products which can be seen, touched, measured or are countable. In a connection with the financial statements and records of accounting, the reference may be to the amount assigned to the stock or the pile of goods owned by an enterprise at a particular period of time. Inventory controls transit and handling. The raw materials may be transported thousands of ki lometers before they are converted into an end product. At the same time, materials which are in transit, may take a period of several days or months. During this process of transit, materials carry someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory. These Inventories serve to isolate the supplier, the producer and the consumer. Inventories permit the acquirement of raw materials in economic lot sizes as well as processing of these raw materials into finished goods in the most economical quantities. Raw material inventories distinguish the supplier of raw materials from the user of these raw materials. Finished goods inventories distinguish the user of the final goods from the producer of the goods. Inventories are held to facilitate product display and service to customers, batching in production in order to take advantage of longer production runs and provide flexibility in production scheduling. There are four types of inventories: Production inventories MRO inventories In process inventories Finished goods inventories Objectives of inventory management To ensure a continuous supply of raw materials and supplies to facilitate unhandled production. To maintain required quantity of finished goods for smooth sales operation and efficient customer service. It permits the acquirement of raw materials in economic lot sizes as well as processing of these raw materials into finished goods is the most economical quantity known as economic lot size. It reduces the dependencies of one another and enables the organizations to schedule their operations without getting dependent on each other. It helps to reduce those costs which have been occurred during the material handling. It helps to utilize people and materials reasonably. It controls display of the products and services provided to the corresponding customers. INVENTORY SYSTEM An inventory system facilitates the organizational structure and the operating policies for maintaining and controlling materials to be inventoried. This system is responsible for ordering and receipt of materials, timing the order placement and keeping record of what has been ordered, how much ordered and from whom the order placement has been done. There are two models of inventory system:- The fixed order quantity system The fixed order periodic system FIXED ORDER QUANTITY SYSTEM The fixed order quantity system is also known as the Q system. In this system, whenever the stock on hand reaches the reorder point, a fixed quantity of materials is ordered. The fixed quantity of material ordered each time is actually the economic order quantity. Whenever a new consignment arrives, the total stock is maintained within the maximum and the minimum limits. The fixed order quantity method is a method that facilitates for a predetermined amount of a given material to be ordered at a particular period of time. This method helps to limit reorder mistakes, conserve space for the storage of the finished goods, and block those unnecessary expenditures that would tie up funds that could be better utilized elsewhere. The fixed order quantity may be bridged to an automatic reorder point where a particular quantity of a good is ordered when stock at hand reaches a level which is already determined.Ã Advantages: Each material can be procured in the most economical quantity. Purchasing and inventory control people automatically gives their attention to those items which are required only when are needed. Positive control can easily be handled to maintain the inventory investment at the desired level only by calculating the predetermined maximum and minimum values. Disadvantages: Sometimes, the orders are placed at the irregular time periods which may not be convenient to the producers or the suppliers of the materials. The items cannot be grouped and ordered at a time since the reorder points occur irregularly. If there is a case when the order placement time is very high, there would be two to three orders pending with the supplier each time and there is likelihood that he may supply all orders at a time. EOQ may give an order quantity which is much lower than the supplier minimum and there is always a probability that the order placement level for a material has been reached but not noticed in which case a stock out may occur. The system assumes stable usage and definite lead time. When these change significantly, a new order quantity and a new order point should be fixed, which is quite cumbersome. FIXED ORDER PERIOD SYSTEM In this system, the stock position of each material of a product is checked at regular intervals of time period. When the stock level of a given product is not sufficient to sustain the operation of production until the next scheduled tested, an order is placed destroying the supply. The frequency of reviews varies from organization to organization. It also varies among products within the same organization, depending upon the importance of the product, predetermined production schedules, market conditions and so forth. The order quantities vary for different materials. Every order quantity in their method is obtained by the following formula. Advantages: The ordering and inventory costs are low. The ordering cost is considerably reduced though follow up work for each delivery may be necessary. The suppliers will also offer attractive discounts as sales are guaranteed. The system works well for those products which exhibit an irregular or seasonal usage and whose purchases must be planned in advance on the basis of sales estimates. Dis advantages: The periodic testing system tends to peak the purchasing work around the review dates. The system demands the establishment of rather inflexible order quantities in the interest of administrative efficiency. It compels a periodic review of all items; this itself makes the system somewhat inefficient. Distinction between Q system and P system Point of difference Q system P system Initiation of order Stock on hand reaches to reorder point Based on fixed review period and not stock level Period of order Any time when stock level reaches to reorder point Only after the predetermined period Record keeping Continuously each time a withdrawal or addition is made Only at the review period Order quantity Constant the same quantity ordered each time Quantity of order varies each time order is placed Size of inventory less than the P system Larger than the Q system Time to maintain Higher due to perpetual record keeping Less than due to only at the review period Examples Fixed order quantity system A painter can order 200 gallons or more for $4.75 per gallon, with all other factors in the computation remaining the same. He must compare the total costs of taking this approach to the total costs under the EOQ. Using the total cost formula, the painter would find TC = PD + HQ/2 + SD/Q = (5 Ãâ" 3,500) + (3 Ãâ" 187)/2 + (15 Ãâ" 3,500)/187 = $18,061 for the EOQ. Ordering the higher quantity and receiving the price discount would yield a total cost of (4.75 Ãâ" 3,500) + (3 Ãâ" 200)/2 + (15 Ãâ" 3,500)/200 = $17,187. In other words, the painter can save $875 per year by taking advantage of the price break and making 17.5 orders per year of 200 units each. Fixed order period system Daily demand for a product is 10 units with a standard deviation of 3 units. The review period is 30 days, and lead time is 14 days. At the moment of the review time, there are 150 units in inventory. For a 98% service level, how many units should be ordered? Solution = 10 units = 3 units T= 30 days L= 14 days z= 2.05 units.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Business Intelligence Software As we discuss the possibility of emerging into business intelligence software we must keep in mind the overall purpose of using any type of software is to reach strategic goals in order to increase market shares. I will discuss how business intelligence software will allow us to meet those strategic goals. We will establish what type of information and analysis capabilities will be available once this business intelligence software is implemented. We will discuss hardware and system software that will be required to run specific business intelligence software. Lastly, I will give a brief synopsis on three vendors (IBM, Microsoft Microsoft and Oracle) that are dominating the business information software industry today. The goal to any company succeeding in today?s fast paced high tech world is to establish aggressive strategic goals and a means to meet those goals. The end state of strategic goals is the capturing of your industry market share. Business intelligence software is a means or method to meet the goals. Business Intelligence Software brings together established software into a single working suite that will allow personnel from across the corporation to observe the same information in real time on a day-to-day basis. By implementing business intelligence software into our company, it will allow for a consolidated data collection point. This software will also allow us to tap into this consolidated data using multiple methods and display it in various forms or in real time using different web applications. The information that can be extracted from the business information software is endless. In the article written by Alison Dragoon, Business Intelligence Get Smart(er), she states the following about data usage; ? ?[Unused data] is still a great source of untapped productivity and competitive advantage for most companies," he says. Just how much data is going unused? Downes guesses companies are extracting value from only about 20 percent of their data.? With this stated by placing all pertinent information into one database allows personnel throughout the company to pull data that will assist in their daily duties. This data can be arranged to track the life cycle of any product from birth to grave. By tracking an item in this fashion allows us to alleviate faulty products in this process or to allevia... ... analysis with Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL), online analytical processing (OLAP) and data mining capabilities built into the data server. Additionally, we can add Oracles E-Business Suite Corporate Performance Management system that includes pre-packaged applications for measuring and monitoring business performance. Oracle brings to the table exactly what we are looking for, a proven business information tool that is capable of delivering the information that is required to give us time and accurate information. Bibliography Cindi Howson, The Best BI Tool [WWW document] URL http://www.intelligententerprise.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=21400422 Alice Dragoon, Business Intelligence Gets Smart(er) [WWW document] URL http://www.cio.com/archive/091503/smart.html Unknown, Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing in SQL Server 2005 [WWW document] URL http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/sql/2005/evaluate/dwsqlsy.mspx Unknown, Introducing SQL Server 2005 [WWW document] URL http://www.microsoft.com/sql/2005/default.asp Unknown, IBM, [WWW document] URL http://www.ibm.com/us/ Unknown, Oracle, [WWW document] URL http://www.oracle.com/index.html
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Section 10(3)(c) of the Passport Act authorizes the Passport authority to impound a Passport if it deems it necessary to do so in the in the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of India, friendly relations of India with any foreign country, or in the interest of the general public. ManekaÃ¢â¬â¢s passport was impounded by the central Government under the Passport Act in the interest of the general public. Maneka filed a writ petition challenging the order on the ground of violation of her Fundamental Rights under Article 21. One of the major grounds of challenge was that the order impounding the Passport was null and void as it had been made without affording her an opportunity to being heard in her defence. The court laid down a number of propositions seeking to make Article 21 much more meaningful than hitherto. Ã¢â The court reiterated the proposition that Article 14, 19 and 21 are not mutually exclusive. A law prescribing a procedure for depriving a person of Ã¢â¬Ëpersonal libertyÃ¢â¬â¢ has to meet the requirements of Article 19. Also the procedure established by law in Article 21 must answer the requirement of Article 14 as well. Ã¢â The expression Ã¢â¬ËPersonal libertyÃ¢â¬â¢ in Article 21 was given an expansive interpretation. The expression Ã¢â¬ËPersonal libertyÃ¢â¬â¢ ought not be read in a narrow and restricted sense so as to exclude those attributes of personal liberty which are specifically dealt with in Article 19. The right to travel abroad falls under Article 21. Ã¢â The most significant and creative aspect of Maneka case, is the re-interpretation by the Court of the expression Ã¢â¬Ëprocedure established by lawÃ¢â¬â¢ used in article 21. Article 21 would no longer mean that law could prescribe some semblance of procedure, however arbitrary or fanciful, to deprive a person of his personal liberty. It now means that the procedure must satisfy certain requisites in the sense of being fair and reasonable. The procedure cannot be arbitrary unfair or unreasonable. As the right to travel abroad falls under art 21, natural justice must be applied while exercising the power of impounding a Passport under the Passport Act. Although the Passport Act does not expressly provide for the requirement of hearing before a passport is impounded, yet the same has to be implied therein. Case 2 Sunil Batra vs. Delhi Administration (1980) The Court has given several directives to improve many aspects of prison administration and condition of prisoners. In this case, the Court has pointed out that its powers under Art. 32 are free from the rigid restraints of the traditional English writs. Prison torture is not beyond the reach of the Supreme Court under Article 32. For this purpose, the Court treats letters from prisoners as writ petitions. In this case, the judicial process was set in motion by a letter written by a prisoner to a Judge of the Supreme Court complaining of the brutal attack by the prison staff on a fellow prisoner. Forsaking all procedural formalities, Ã¢â¬Å"since freedom was at stakeÃ¢â¬ , the letter was treated by the Court as a petition for the writ of Habeas Corpus. Case 3 Hussainara Khatoon vs. Home Secretary Ã¢â¬â State of Bihar (1979) Hussaainara Khatoon case of the Bihar undertrials started with an article written in Indian Express. An advocate then filed a petition under Article 32 in the Supreme Court to protect the personal liberty of the undertrials. The Supreme Court has laid great emphasis on speedy trial of criminal offences and has emphasized: Ã¢â¬Å"It is implicit in the broad sweep and content of Article 21Ã¢â¬ . A fair trial implies a speedy trial. No procedure can be Ã¢â¬Ëreasonable fair or justÃ¢â¬â¢ unless that procedure ensures a speedy trial for determination of the guilt of such person. The Supreme Court has directed release of all undertrials who have been in jail for periods longer than the maximum term of imprisonment for which they could be sentenced if convicted of the offence charged. The Court also directed that the undertrial prisoners, who are accused of multiple offences and who have already been in jail for the maximum term for which they could be sentenced on conviction, even if the sentences awarded to them were consecutive and not concurrent, should be released forthwith, since their continued detention clearly violates not only human dignity but also their Fundamental Right under Art.21 of the Constitution. The Supreme Court has taken a big innovative step forward in humanizing the administration of criminal justice by suggesting that free legal aid be provided by the State to poor prisoners facing a prison sentence. Case 4 Keshavananda Bharati vs. State of Kerala (1973) The State of Kerala passed the Kerala Land Reforms Act. 1963. This Act affected the interest of the petitioner, Keshavananda Bharati, Swamiji of a mutt. So he filed a writ petition before the Supreme Court under Article 32 of the constitution, contending that his fundamental rights under Article 14,19(1)(f),25,26 and 31 were violated by the Kerala Land Reforms Act. While the case was pending, the parliament passed three constitutional Amendments, viz., 24th, 25th & 29th Amendments. The constitution Twenty-fourth Amendment repealed article 19(1) (f) which read Ã¢â¬Å"to acquire, hold and dispose of propertyÃ¢â¬ . It also repealed Article 31, i.e., compulsory acquisition of property. It made several other changes. It also included the Kerala Land Reforms Act in the ninth schedule, thereby making them immune from attack on the ground of fundamental rights. As a result, the fundamental right to property was deleted from the constitution. The petitioner felt that, by these Amendments, he would lose the case in the court. So, he amended his writ petition before the Supreme Court, & challenged the validity of 24th, 25th & 29th Amendments. He contended that though the power of the parliament to amend was wide, it was not unlimited. The power to amend under Article 368 should not empower the parliament to destroy the basic features of the constitution. The Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment in this case is as follows: i) The constitution Twenty-fourth (Amendment) Act, 1971, section 2(a) (b) of the constitution Twenty-fifth (Amendment) Act, and the constitution Twenty-ninth (Amendment) Act are valid. ii) The decision of the majority in GolaknathÃ¢â¬â¢s case that the word Ã¢â¬ËLawÃ¢â¬â¢ in Article 13(2) included Amendments to the constitution & the Article operated as a limitation upon the power to amend the constitution under Article 368 is erroneous, and so, is overruled. iii) The power of Amendment includes within itself the power to add, alter or repeal the various Articles of the constitution, including those relating to fundamental rights. iv) There is no power to amend or alter the basic structure of the constitution. v) The First part of the Article 31-C is valid, and the second part of the Article 31-C laying down Ã¢â¬Å"no law containing a declaration that if it is for giving effect to such policy shall be called in question in any court on the ground that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give effect to such policyÃ¢â¬ is invalid. vi) There is no inherent or implied limitations on the power of Amendment under Article 368. Case 5 Air India vs. Nergesh Meerza (1981) A regulation made by Air India, a statutory corporation, fixed the normal age of retirement of air hostesses at 35 yrs but authorized the managing director to extend the same to 45 yrs at his option subject to other conditions being satisfied. The regulation was held bad as it armed the managing director with uncanalized and unguided discretion to extend the age of retirement of any air hostess. No guidelines, principles or norms were laid down subject to which the power was to be exercised. Nor was there any procedural safeguard available to an air hostess who was denied extension. A regulation providing for termination of service of an airhostess in Air India on her first pregnancy has been held to be arbitrary and abhorrent to the notions of a civilized society. Case 6 Visakha vs. State of Rajasthan (1997) The Supreme Court has declared sexual harassment of a working woman at her place of work as amounting to violation of rights of gender equality and right to life and liberty which is a clear violation of Article 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution. Article 21 guarantees right to life with dignity. Accordingly the Court has observed in this connection: Ã¢â¬Å"the meaning and content of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed in the constitution of India are of sufficient amplitude to encompass all the facets of gender equality including prevention of sexual harassment or abuseÃ¢â¬ Sexual harassment also violates the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental right under Article 19(1)(g) Ã¢â¬Å"to practice any profession or to carry out any occupation, trade or businessÃ¢â¬ . Thus Article 32 is attracted. In the absence of any domestic law relating to sexual harassment in India, the Supreme Court has itself laid down under Article 32 some directions for prevention of such harassment. These directions are binding and enforceable and are required to be strictly observed in all work places until suitable legislation is enacted to occupy the field. Case 7 M R Balaji vs. State of Mysore (1963) An order of the Mysore Government issued under Article 15(4) reserved seats for admission to the state Medical and Engineering colleges for Backward classes(28%) and Ã¢â¬ËmoreÃ¢â¬â¢ Backward classes(22%). This was in addition to the reservation of seats for SCs (15%) and for STs (3%). Backward and more backward classes were designated on the basis of Ã¢â¬ËcastesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËcommunitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ The Supreme Court characterized Article 15(4) as an exception to Article 15(1) (as well as to Article 29(2)]. The court declared the order bad on several grounds in this case. Ã¢â The first defect in the Mysore order was that it was based solely on caste without regard to other relevant factors and this was not permissible under Article 15(4) Ã¢â Secondly, the test adopted by the state to measure educational backwardness was the basis of the average of student population in the last three high school classes of all high schools in the state in relation to a thousand citizens of that community. This average for the whole state was 6.9 per thousand. The vice of the Mysore order was that it included in the list of backward classes, castes or communities whose average was slightly above, or very near or just below the state average(e.g., Lingayats (7.1) were mentioned in BC list). Ã¢â Thirdly, the court declared that Article 15(4) does not envisage classification between backward and more backward classes as was made by the Mysore order. In Balaji case, the Supreme Court could sense the danger in treating Ã¢â¬ËcasteÃ¢â¬â¢ as the sole criterion for determining social and educational backwardness. The importance of the judgment lies in realistically appraising the situation when the court said that economic backwardness would provide a more reliable yardstick for determining social backwardness because more often educational backwardness is the outcome of social backwardness. The court drew distinction between Ã¢â¬ËcasteÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËclassÃ¢â¬â¢. An attempt at finding a new basis for ascertaining social and educational backwardness in place of caste is reflected in the Balaji decision. The court also ruled that reservation under Article 15(4) should be reasonable. It should not be such as to defeat or nullify the main rule of equality enshrined in Article 15(1). While it would not be possible to predicate the exact permissible percentage of reservation, it can be stated in a general and broad way that it ought to be less than 50%. Case 8 Indra Sawhney vs. Union of India (1992) (Mandal Commission Case) The Supreme Court has taken cognizance of many complex but very momentous questions having a bearing on the future welfare and stability of the Indian society. Ã¢â The overall reservation in a year is limited to a maximum of 50% Ã¢â Amongst the classes granted reservation, those who have been benefited from reservation and have thus improved their social status (called the Ã¢â¬Ëcreamy layerÃ¢â¬â¢ by the court), should not be allowed to benefit from reservation over and over again. This means that the benefit of reservation should not be misappropriated by the upper crust but that the benefit of reservation should be allowed to filter down to the lowliest so that they may benefit from reservation to improve their position. The court has said that if a member of IAS, IPS or any other All India Service, his social status rises; he is no longer socially disadvantaged. This means that, in effect, a family can avail of the reservation only once. Ã¢â An element of merit has been introduced into the scheme of reservation. o Promotions are to be merit based and are to be excluded from the reservation rule. o Certain posts are to be excluded from the reservation rule and recruitment to such posts is to be merit based. Minimum standards have to be laid for recruitment to the reserved posts.
Friday, November 8, 2019
4 Key Facts about MLA Referencing - Proofread My Paper 4 Key Facts about MLA Referencing ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to get bogged down in detail with referencing. But having a good overall sense of the system youÃ¢â¬â¢re using is important. As such, today weÃ¢â¬â¢re looking at MLA referencing in overview, which should give you an idea of how to use MLA citations effectively. 1. What is MLA Referencing? MLA referencing is a citation format developed by the Modern Language Association (MLA). Since the MLA is an association for scholars of language and literature, MLA referencing is most commonly used in the liberal arts and humanities. 2. When Do I Need to Cite a Source in MLA? Many worry about not having Ã¢â¬Å"enoughÃ¢â¬ citations in their work, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s more important to know when a citation is required. MLA specifies citing a source when: Quoting a source directly to support your own arguments Using data or other content published elsewhere Paraphrasing someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas in your own words However, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessary to give a citation when referring to something that is common knowledge, such as Ã¢â¬Å"snow is coldÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"people in France speak French.Ã¢â¬ French snow is cold, too. (Photo: Yann Caradec/flickr) 3. Citation Format The general citation format in MLA requires giving the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s surname and page numbers (if available) in parentheses after the relevant passage: Freedom creates Ã¢â¬Å"obstacles from which we sufferÃ¢â¬ (Sartre 495). If the author is named in the text, simply give the page numbers instead: According to Sartre, freedom also creates Ã¢â¬Å"obstaclesÃ¢â¬ (495). This format differs slightly when citing multiple works by the same author. When this occurs, you should also give a shortened version of the source title in the citation instead to avoid confusion: Sartre says that freedom creates Ã¢â¬Å"obstaclesÃ¢â¬ and that this is part of existentialism (Being and Nothingness 495). We also use the title in citations when a source has no named author. 4. The Page MLA requires all cited sources to be listed on a Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ page at the end of your document. This list should: Begin on a new page at the end of your paper Order sources alphabetically by author name, surname first List multiple works by the same author alphabetically by title, using three hyphens () in place of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s name for each entry after the first Capitalize each of the main words in titles, but not articles, prepositions or conjunctions unless theyÃ¢â¬â¢re the first word of a title or subtitle Italicize titles of longer works (e.g., books and films) and use quotation marks for shorter works (e.g., journal articles and poems) Use a half-inch hanging indent for each line after the first for each reference The information to include in the list for any given source depends to some extent on its format. However, it will almost always feature the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s name, a title, and publication details. For instance, the book used in the examples above would appear as: Sartre, Paul. Being and Nothingness. Translated by Hazel E. Barnes. Routledge, 1969. Its possible that nobody has ever looked more like a French philosopher than Sartre does here.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Research Paper on Gold Rush Gold in California was accidental discovered near an American river that would change the young growing state. All across America, young men made the decision to go to California. People came from Europe, Asia, and South America in search of instant wealth. The new American dream was to get rich, and to make a fortune quickly.( Miller 151) In 1839, one of the wealthiest people in California came over as an immigrant from Sweden; his name was John Sutter. His purpose of coming to California was to build his own private agricultural empire. In late 1847, James Marshall and about twenty other men were sent to a river by Sutter to build a sawmill. In order to supply enough lumber needed for SutterÃ¢â¬â¢s ranch. On January 24, 1848 the sawmill was almost complete when something caught MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s eye. Marshall picked up what he assumed to be gold, and while studying the gold he saw another piece. After making one of the greatest discovers in the history of the west, Marshall and his worker went back to work, but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t before long that they kept on finding more gold.( Glass 45-47 ) Even though Marshall was sure that he had found gold, he needed more proof, so Marshall to back some gold to Sutter. In order to test the gold Sutter used an encyclopedia that gave him clues about gold. Sutter made the conclusio n that it was gold, but neither Sutter nor Marshall was happy. The reason why was because Sutter thought that gold seekers might bring competition to his empire. Marshall had to finish building a sawmill and knew that gold seekers would just get in his way. The two men thought the way to prevent this from happening was to take an oath to keep the discovery of gold a secret. However it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before the stories of gold discovered in California leaked out into the neighboring states. Unusually there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a rush to California, because the news of gold was just another tale to unlikely to really happen.( Internet A) Sam Brannan was a San Francisco merchant that would become the richest person in California even though he never mined for gold. BrannanÃ¢â¬â¢s plan was to run though the streets of San Francisco shouting the story about MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of gold, and a proof to the people that there was really gold, Brannan held up a bottle of gold dust. BrannanÃ¢â¬â¢s plan worked and sparked the rush for gold. Another part of BrannanÃ¢â¬â¢s plan was to use the method of supply and demand. Brannan had bought every pickaxe, pan and shovel in the state. A metal pan that would have sold for twenty cents just a couple of days ago, Brannan now sold it for fifteen dollars. In nine weeks Brannan had made thirty-six thousand dollars .( Internet B) Most of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s gold is deep underground and embedded in hard rock. Unlike anywhere else in the world, gold in California was easy to get and free for anyone with a few tools. However, not only people that mined got rich there were a few people that got luck and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to mine for gold. One man was Levi Strauss who in 1853, stitched a pair of pants out of canvas. These long lasting pants later became very popular with the miners. These pants were so well made and popular that they are still around today.( Canine 34) The California gold rush not only brought Americans to California but foreigners such as the Chinese, Mexicans, Irish, Germans, French, and Turks. The foreigners had no intention of staying in California, their only reason for going there was to get gold and go home. However brining gold out of the country was hard because of bandits. As the amount of gold became less, the hatred towards foreigners became more. So the California legislature passed the Foreign Miners Tax in 1850. Which was twenty dollars per month that had to be paid by foreign miners. Once this law was passed many foreigners refused to pay the tax and left the country. African Americans that were brought over to California, as slaves were latter freed because in 1850, California was a free state. As gold became harder to get, so California had to undergo changes. By the early 1850s, a single worker could no longer work his area alone, so he needed help and technology to find more gold. To begin with miners would work together to dam rivers and reroute water to make the gold more visible. Soon after this happened the group of workers were taken over by corporations. The new corporation developed new ideas for mining gold that would destroy the rivers. One thing that miners would use was mercury. Miners would line their pan with mercury to create a type of magnet for gold. Unfortunetly, miners didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know the long term effects of using mercury, because mercury would be washed into the rivers and pollute the rivers as well as any animals that were living in the rivers. The most common way to safely mine gold was to use shallow metal pans, and mix soil from the riverbeds. Then by making circular motions with the pan, the lighter soil washed away, leaving only the gold. A m ore complex way of mining was the waterwheel that was introduced by the Chinese. The water would move the wheel, thus powering various mining machines.( Internet B) However the worst was yet to come when in 1853, the technique of hydraulic mining was introduced. Hydraulic mining used strong jets of water that tore apart the walls of the riverbeds. These jets of water were so powerful, that it could kill a man who was standing two hundred feet away. Miners would divert streams sending smaller stream off to each side of a river, thus leaving river beds exposed and easier to see gold. Water that was diverted from these jets onto dry land created a boggy mud that destroyed habitats for animals, and flooded the land that farmers used, that lived down stream of the miming. By the 1860s it was becoming aware to the people that hydraulic mining was destroying the landscape. However, little was done to try and stop hydraulic mining because still the only thing people in California thought ab out was themselves and getting rich. It took over thirty years to ban hydraulic mining. The rivers of northern California would never return to their original shape. Then again no part of California would ever be the same after the gold rush was finally over with. San Francisco was once a tiny little town within California. Only a few hundred people lived there in the 1840s, but because of the gold rush, it brought a huge population growth. San Francisco soon averaged thirty new houses and two murders each day. A piece of land in San Francisco coasted sixteen dollars in 1847, was then sold for forty five thousand dollars just eighteen months later. In less than two years the city of San Francisco burned to the ground six times. Of coarse there was always enough money to rebuild a bigger and better city. (Glass 48) Gold was similar to a magnet that brought people from all over the world. San Francisco quickly turned into a city that interested many types of people. California also became a melting pot of cultures due to the fact that so many foreigners came to California during the gold rush.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Managing in the service environment - Essay Example Nowadays exporting of services is an expanding business. India is currently recognized as the largest services exporter in the world. Services sector comprises 70% proportion of the total output in the world but only 20percentage proportion of the same is incorporated in worldÃ¢â¬â¢s international trade. Thus exporting of services is an under developed industry. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s experience reveals that development of economies is not necessarily lead by the industrialization. Services sector driven economic development is also possible. India moved from being an agriculture based economy to services based economy without involving industrialization (The Nation). Therefore identifying the issues relating the companies in the services sector has become rather important to the development of countries. It has been revealed that the service quality in British banks is substantially low. Customers are increasingly dissatisfied by the banking experiences in England (Johnston, 1997). Such i ssues and increasingly identifying economic significance has called for challenging research studies relating the service quality. 1. Introduction of Customer Service Customer service plays an important role in building the brand loyalty. Ã¢â¬Å"Loyal and an involved customerÃ¢â¬ is an asset to a company. Developing such a customer base is recognized as the aim of Ã¢â¬Å"customer serviceÃ¢â¬ by most of the modern day businesses. ... Part of the contemporary businessesÃ¢â¬â¢ everyday mission is to cultivate consumer relationships by strengthening emotional connection with the customer. Listening to customers through rigorous consumer research and strong consumer orientation by keeping the products relevant and appealing are important elements in customer service. 2. Introduction of Service Quality Service quality is defined as "the extent of discrepancy between customers' expectations or desires and their perception of what is delivered" (Zeithaml et. al., 1990). According to the SERVQUAL approach the spheres of service quality can be described in terms of (1) Tangibles: Ã¢â¬Å"Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication materials"(2) Reliability: "Ability of the organization to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. (3) Responsiveness: "Willingness of organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s staff to help customers and provide them with prompt service"(4) Assurance: "Knowledge, comp etence and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence in the customer towards the service firm" and (5) Empathy: "Caring, individualized attention the firm provided its customers" (Manjunatha and Shivalingaiah, 2004). Thus it can be seen that customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations from a services based company includes attributes of physical environment as well as the human resources. Physical capital of the company has to be appealing and convenient to the consumer. Contemporary businesses use this concept as a marketing strategy and invest substantial amounts of resources to build the physical environment of their companies. Example: modern stores are carefully designed to reflect the image of the company brand. The showcases and environment of these stores are specifically